(BASED ON EXAMINEE’S MEMORY)
ENGLISH SECTION FULLY SOLVED WITH EXPLANATIONS.
Directions : (1 – 10 ) : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions. certain words and phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
Inequality is at the top of the agenda around the world. Hilary Clinton, the leading Democratic candidate to succeed Barack Obama as President of the United States, made inequality the centrepiece of a major campaign speech.
Economics at the IMF too have recently released a study assessing the causes and consequences of rising inequality. Its authors reckon that while inequality could cause all sorts of problems, governments should be especiallly concerned about its effects on growth. They estimate that a one percent point increase in the income share of the top 20% will drag down growth by 0.08% percentage points over five years , while a rise in the income share of the bottom 20% actually boostshow does inequality affect economic growth rates? Economists say that some inequality is needed to propel growth.Without the carrot of large financial rewards, risky entrepreneurship and innovation would grind to a 1975, an economist, argued that societies cannot have both perfect equality and perfect efficiency, but must choose how much one to sacrifice for the other. while most economists continue to hold that view, the recent rise in inequality has prompted a new look at its economic costs. Inequality could impair growth if those with low incomes suffer poor health and low productivity as a result, or if, as evidence suggests, the poor struggle to finance investments in education, inequality could also threaten public confidence in growth-boosting capitalist strategies like free trade.
More recent work suggests that inequality could lead to economic or financial instability. the governor of the reserve Bank of India argued that governments often respond to inequality by easing the flow of credit to poorer households, however, American households borrowed heavily prior to the crisis to prop up their consumption. But for this rise in household debt, consumption would have stagnated as a result of poor wage growth. Crafting a response to rising inequality is therefore tricky, he says. some of the negative impact of inequality on growth can be blamed on poor government policies in highly unequal countries. In Latin america, for instance, populist pressure for excessive state economic control seems to shorten the average duration of growth spells. Yet in moderation, redistribution seems to benign effects perhaps by reducing dependence on risky borrowing among poorer households. Over the past generation or two inequality has risen most in places where progressive policies, such as high top tax- rates, have been weakened a little more redistribution now might improve the quality and quantity of economic growth and reduce the demand for more aggressive state interventions later.
- Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning to the word CARROTgiven in bold as used in the passage.
(a) Nutrient (b) Threat (c) Argument (d) Incentive (e) Satisfaction
2. Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning to the word SPELLS given in bold as used in the passage.
(a) Curses (b) Predictions (c) Periods (d) Charms (e) Results
3. Which of the following best describes the opinion of experts regarding inequality?
(a) The impact of inequality on growth is exaggerated by governments.
(b) Inequality is a complex phenomenon and requires careful handling.
(c) Governments should aim at achieving perfect equality.
(d) State interventions such as redistribution cannot reduce inequality.
(e) Easing the flow of credit to poor households is the way to reduce inequality.
4. According to the passage, which of the following is/are the possible impact (s) of inequality?
A. It affects economic stability of a country.
B. The public may object to policies like free trade.
C. It discourages entrepreneurship and innovation.
- Only (A)
- Only (B)
- All (A) (B) and (C)
- Only (A) & (B)
- Only (B) & (C)
5. What examples of Hillary Clinton and IMF economists cited in the passage convey?
(a) Politicians misrepresent research depending on the message they want to deliver.
(b) Americans are not concerned with the impact of growing inequality.
(c) Social issues are focused on prior to elections but not implemented thereafter.
(d) The issue of inequality is getting a lot of attention at present.
(e) America and IMF disagree on the measures to be adopted to handle inequality.
6.What is the author”s view regarding policies such as high top tax-rates?
(a) These are pointless as they drag down growth.
(b) He is in favour of these as research shows they have apositive impact.
(c) He believes they promote risky lending practice among the poor.
(d) These are unfair as they impact ess than 20 percent of the population.
(e) Other than those given as options.
7. Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?
(a) Governments and central bankers are in agreement on the measures needed to reduce inequality.
(b) India and Lain America have the highest rates of inequality.
(c) Government policies of redistribution of wealth serve no purpose whatsoever.
(d) Inequality is on the rise on account of the partial policies of the IMF.
(e) None of the given options is true in the context of the passage.
8. Choose the word which is most nearly the opposite in meaning to the word BENIGN given in bold as used in the passage.
(a) Mild (b)Gentle (c)Selfish (d)Friendly (e) Nasty
9. Which of the following is the central idea of the passage?
(a) Inequality impacts growth and cannot be eliminated .
(b) Inequality is growing in developed countries not just developing ones.
(c) Those in positions of power are unconcerned about the effects of inequality.
(d) Economists in developed and developing countries disagree about managing inequality.
(e) The IMF should take the lead and define acceptable norms of inequality.
10, Choose the word which is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning to the word FREE given in bold as used in the passage.
(a)Restricted (b) Expensive (c) Independent (d) Confidential (e) Boundless
Directions : (11 – 15 ) : Rearrange the given six sentences/group of sentences (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) and (F) in a proper sequence so as to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the given questions.
A. These nuggets contain words of caution because many young middle-class Chinese who gear up during the nation’s glittering boom years, are suddenly confronting the shadow of an economic slowdown and even hints of austerity.
B. Titled “Guide on Safe Passage Through the Economic Crisis”, it is aimed at young Chinese urban professionals.
C. Recently, an advice column has been circulating widely on China’s most popular social media phone app.
D. Its nuggets of wisdom include “Work hard at your job so you are the last too be laid off ” and ” In an economic crisis, liquidity is the number one priority”.
E. By austerity they mean cancelling vacations and delaying weddings and even selling recently purchased apartments to have cash on hand.
F. These frantic measures are prompting the leaders to take appropriate actions to bring the situation under control.
11. Which of the following should be the FOURTH sentence after rearrangement ?
(1) A (2) B (3) C (4) F (5) D
12. Which of the following should be the SECOND sentence after rearrangement ?
(1) A (2) B (3) F (4) D (5) F
13. Which of the following should be the SIXTH (LAST) sentence after rearrangement ?
(1) E (2) D (3) A (4) B (5) F
14. Which of the following should be the FIFTH sentence after rearrangement ?
(1) A (2) D (3) E (4) F (5) C
15. Which of the following should be the FIRST sentence after rearrangement ?
(1) A (2) F (3) B (4) C (5) E
Directions : (16 – 20 ) : Each sentencebelow has two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Choose the words that fit the meaning of the sentence as a whole.
16. The actress is ………….that she will be spending her birthday with her husband and other……….of the family.
(1) ecstatic, elements (2) abject, sources (3) confused, people (4) mundane, partners (5) thrilled, members
17. Steep hills and low rise traditional buildings that once ……… the mosque have in recent years given………to shopping malls and luxury hotels.
(1) befell, up (2) encased, space (3) beautified, forward (4) hid, liberty (5) surrounded , way
18. Scientific research has now …………… that a fish-rich diet can help………..depression.
(1) established, react (2) confirmed, curb (3) released, combat (4) revealed, accustom (5) deepened, limit.
19. The actress who put on a lot of weight to effectively………….. the character she played in her film, looks like a ……………heroine now.
(1) depict, conventional (2) pass. regular (3) portray, more (4) revolve, usual (5) represent, absolute.
20. Even as he ……………himself for his film debut, the comedian is ………….. getting a taste of how some friendship in showbiz come with a price tag.
(1) prepares, favourably (2) readies, allegedly (3) locates, reportedly (4) Shows, apparently (5) apportions, supposedly
Directions : (21 – 25 ) : In the following questions, read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. Select the part with the error as your answer. If there is no error, select “No error” as your answer. Ignore the error of punctuation, if any.
21. The pledge that countries /(1) are making to battle climate change/(2) will still result in the world /(3) heating up by more than 6 degree Celsius./(4) No error (5).
22. When it come to helping /(1) one another, it turns out /(2) that some fish are better/(3) at it than previously thought./(4) No error (5).
23. Every child in our /(1) country has the right/(2) to acquire quality/(3) primary and secondary education./(4) No error (5)
24. The club members are /(1) socially responsible and /(2) take part in /(3) variety volunteering activities. /(4)No error (5)
25. On Sunday night,/(1) a rare phenomenon will have produce/(2) a moon that will appear slightly bigger /(3) than usual and have a reddish hue./(4) No error (5)
Directions : (26 – 30 ) : In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. Against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the balank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.
A……26…… affecting the quality of primary education appears to be ……27…..levels of teacher motivation. In 2002-2003, 25% of primary school teachers in rural India were absent n a given day. The impact of absenteeism is…..28… by the fact that the average primary school in India has a workforce of no more than three teachers. the obvious reason, remuneration, does not appear to be a …….29….. In fact, both education experts and ordinary citizens ……..30…..that government-employed school teachers are paid relatively well.UNESCO surveys from as early as 2004 indicate that the annual statutory salary of primary school teachers in India with 15 years’ experience was more than $14000.
26. (1) important (2) tip (3) pointless (4) key (5) seriously
27. (1) high (2) pointed (3) acute (4) low (5) beneath
28. (1) exacerbated (2) married (3) stated (4) witnessed (5) portrayed
29. (1) presence (2) forcing (3) driver (4) reckon (5) case
30. (1) together (2) says (3) argue (4) couple (5) impart
- (4) : This is from the idiom ‘carrot and stick’ where carrot means inducement or enticement. so the correct option here meaning the word is incentive.
- (3) : The sentence……duration of growth spells….’ itself suggests passage of time. So the answer is periods.
- (2) : the sentence in the passage ‘….crafting a response to rising inequality is tricky….’ vouches this statement.
- (3) : All the statements concur with the views expressed in the passage.
- (4) : Second & third sentences are given to support the statement given in first sentence …inequality is at the top of the agenda….
- (3) : the lines in the passage…..over the past…..inequality has risen..where…high tax has been weakened.
- (3) : the lines in the passage ….some of the negative impacts of inequality on growth……on poor government policies in……… support this statement.
- (5) : The dictionary meaning of benign is…kind , benevolent or gentle its opposite can be vicious or here nasty.
- (1) : The options 3 to 5 are partial statements. Out of 1 & 2 , 1 is the correct answer.
- (1) : Options 3 & 5 have same meaning as free. 4 too is incorrect. Out of 1 & 2 , 1 is the most appropriate here.
11 to 15 : If we go through the sentences carefully, out of all these, C starting with ‘Recently… suggests to be the first sentence. Further B gives further details about the app referred in C. D and A give its further details. E clarifies the point in A further. F gives the conclusion of all these sentences. So the answer is : 11(1) 12(2) 13(5) 14(3) 15(4).
16 to 20 :
16. The bracketed words of the following options do not suggest correct meaning in the sentence.1(elements) 2(abject) 3(confused people) 4(mundane partners) So 5 is the answer.
17. All other options except 5 do not fit well in the sentence.
18. Only option 2 is correct according to the given sentence.
19. Only option 1 is correct to be inserted in blanks.
20. The option 2 is the best & correct of all other options.
21. (4) For climate the word’warming’ is used. Heating is incorrect word here.
22. (1) It is singular so requires singular verb,’comes’. Come is incorrect.
23. (5) Sentence is correct.
24. (4) Volunteering suggests activities of volunteer persons which is incorrect. So here volunteer is the correct word. ,,,,variety of volunteer activities.
25. (2) The sentence is in future tense, The words ‘will have produce’ are incorrect. It should be will produce.
26. (4) Key
27. (4) low
29 (5) case
30 (3) argue